Our country is very large. More than 121 Crore people live in it. The Union Government looks after the country. But it can not look after all the people individually. That is why our country is divide into states, District, Block, Gram Panchayat. There are in descending orders of power. Gram Panchayat is at the bottom. So it can look after and control the need and problems of people of India. It can ask to the government on behalf of the bottom level people. It also carry out many bottom level project for the welfare of people of India.
The head of the Gram Panchayat is called Pardhan, Sarpanch or Mukhiya.
Gram panchayats are local self-governments at the village or small town level in India. As of 2002 there were about 265,000 gram panchayats in India. The gram panchayat is the foundation of the Panchayat System. A gram panchayat can be set up in villages with minimum population of 300. Sometimes two or more villages are clubbed together to form group-gram panchayat when the population of the individual villages is less than 300.
Sarpanch (सरपंच)/ Chairperson/ Gram Pradhan (ग्राम प्रधान):
The Sarpanch or Chairperson is the head of the Gram Panchayat. The elected members of the Gram Panchayat elect from among themselves a Sarpanch and a Deputy Sarpanch for a term of five years. In some places the panchayat president is directly elected by village people. The Sarpanch presides over the meetings of the Gram Panchayat and supervises its working. He implements the development schemes of the village. The Deputy Sarpanch, who has the power to make his own decisions, assists the Sarpanch in his work.
The Sarpanch has the responsibilities of
Looking after street lights, construction and repair work of the roads in the villages and also the village markets, fairs, festivals and celebrations.
Keeping a record of births, deaths and marriages in the village.
Looking after public health and hygiene by providing facilities for sanitation and drinking water.
Providing for education.