Water management : It is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources.
Water management is to compete demands for water and seeks to allocate water on an equitable basis to satisfy all uses and demands.
Resources of Water : On Earth only three per cent of water is not salty and two-thirds of the freshwater is locked up in ice caps and glaciers. Of the remaining one per cent, a fifth is in remote inaccessible areas . Rainfall and flood water cannot easily be used. At present only about 0.08 per cent of all the world’s fresh water is exploited by mankind in ever increasing demand for sanitation, drinking, manufacturing, leisure and agriculture
Fresh Water consumtion: Agriculture is the largest user of the world's freshwater resources, consuming 70 per cent. Industry uses a further 20 per cent and municipalities account for the remaining ten per cent.
Water scarcity: An assessment of water management in agriculture was conducted in 2007 by the International Water Management Institute in Sri Lanka to see if the world had sufficient water to provide food for its growing population. It assessed the current availability of water for agriculture on a global scale and mapped out locations suffering from water scarcity. It found that a fifth of the world's people live in areas of physical water scarcity, where there is not enough water to meet all demands. A further 1.6 billion people live in areas experiencing economic water scarcity, where the lack of investment in water or insufficient human capacity make it impossible for authorities to satisfy the demand for water.
Drought Prone Areas of India : The Irrigation Commission, 1972 has identified 67 drought prone districts comprising of 326 Talukas located in 8 States having an area of 49.73 M. ha. Subsequently, the National Commission on Agriculture, 1976 identified a few more drought prone areas with a slightly different criteria. The drought prone areas of India are southern and eastern Maharashtra, northern Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, and Rajasthan.
Name some drought prone areas of the world are: Most of Africa especially Ethiopia and its surroundings, Most of the Mediterranean, Mexico, Many regions within Australia, India, parts of the Middle East.
So the main purpose of managing water is to distribute water equally throughout the region of drought prone area. It should be targeted by each nation. In doing so there must be also generating of electrical energy if possible. So multipurpose projects are to be planned. These projects should not be under ministry of the government but must be a unique corporation or company because it takes long time. Ministers will only suck up the money without any responsibility to pass their period of administration and to blame others if not elected in next election.