water pollution causes: Drainage water, chemicals and untreated water of factories in form of sewage, solid and liquid excreta, Detergents, tree and bush debris, semi-cremated bodies, plastic wastes , animals bathing in lakes and ponds, food processing by-products and fertilizers containing nitrate and phosphate are the main causes of water pollution.
But it may be concluded overall that man is the main causing agent to make water unfit for use by exploiting it lavishly and in indiscipline way without knowing the impact of their activities. In India and in most of the developing countries, the most prominent causes of water pollution are untreated sewage and the waste of hose-holds channelized to drain out the wastes of locality into river in an unorganised way.
Different countries have different dominant sources of water pollution. For example untreated water (drainage water) is the dominant sources of water pollution in India and in many other developing nations.
In Pakistan untreated sewage is also a big issue like India, but it is at larger scale. Watch these images. Only 51% of urban residents and 6% of rural residents have sanitation facilities as per 1987 data. Larger population of Pakistan are affected by water born diseases due to water pollution. (Resource wikipedia). The National conservation Agency of Pakistan reported that solid and liquid excreta; disposed on roadway into waterways; are one of the major source of water pollution in the country.
Developed countries has proper sanitation system but many developing countries are lacking to implement organized sanitation system and lack in water treatment process.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of USA categories water pollution into two broad categories Point source (Direct source) and non-point source(indirect source). Point sources include effluent outfalls from factories, public house-holds, refineries, waste treatment plants etc. Non-point sources of pollutants enter the waterway from soils and from the atmosphere via rain water. These pollutants are human and agricultural residue like fertilizers, pesticides etc.
American are estimated as 5% of world population and dispose 30% of world wastes. About 5000 people worldwide die daily because of dirty drinking water. About 46% of lakes in America are too polluted for fishing and aquatic life. (Resource Blacksmith Institute EPA).
But USA has done marvelous job in installing wastewater projects in the country. Already 10 bigger cities have world class wastewater treatment plant.
* water pollution control methods: Pollution control has become the most important subject worldwide, because pollution is going to threat whole ecosystem of the globe in the due course of time. Here are the main points to check the water pollution.
1. The most important part to control pollution is the house hold waste treatment before its disposal into river. And it is better to reuse treated fresh water.
2. Open air disposal of solid and liquid excreta must be banned and proper sanitation facilities to be provided to all. It is big task but it must be started in phased manner.
3. Wastewater treatment plants(wastewater treatment plants Picture) are to be installed. The government needs to go on massive investment and the treated water and byproduct of these plant must be reused for better cost benefit for the national economic gain. This sector has bigger opportunity globally. Already a mega undergoing project of wastewater treatment plant in Atotonilco, Hidalgo, Mexico is in the completion mode . It will be the largest wastewater treatment plant of its kind , having largest per day fresh water production capacity in the world. this project will be used for irrigation of 80000 ha land inTula valley of Hidalgo state of Mexico . This is an example for other nation to learn. Watch how wastewater treatment plant works this video .
Pictures and videos are given so that the school students have no problem in grasping the idea of writing essays on water pollution. Images give the one view big ideas to explain and to keep any matter in memories. So I recommend all to have a glimpse on the pollution images.
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